Latino-Faliscan subgroup of Italic languages occupied lands on the left bank of the Tiber river in the 10th or 9th century BC. At this time Latinians did not know writing yet, and were under the influence of Etruscans. Only in the late 8th century Greek alphabet was modified to make the Latin one, and since then the historical development of Latin began. The earliest inscription found in Latin shows the archaic stage of the language similar to Oscan and Venetic languages. At this time, when Rome was found, Latin already had its structure with all complex verb forms and noun declension.
The Classical Latin language took birth in the 6th century BC and gradually disappeared in the 4th and 5th century AD, becoming Popular Latin. In this period of time, Latin was flourishing and spreading all over Europe, was spoken in Asia and northern Africa. It assimilated other Italic languages, other Indo-European and non-Indo-European languages of Italy, France, Alps, Thracia, Illyria, many other ancient tongues. The list of languages Latin caused to disappear is very long. But it all was leaving deep traces in Latin itself. And in the new era the language of Romans began to suffer much simplification, changes and mutations, being restructured in Popular Latin. And as the Classical language remained as an official tongue of medieval Europe, Latin as a living language became extinct, used only in Pope's office in Vatican even now.
Classical Latin had a stereotype Indo-European phonetic system, with long and short vowels, numerous diphthongs, no aspirated or sibilant consonants and two labiovelars - qu and gu. Phonetics is very complicated for its plenty of vowel and consonant interchanges and mutations: assimilations, dissimilations, rotacism, syncope, metathesa, ablauts. But in whole Latin sounds remained simple. Note that Latin in Ancient Rome didn't have a [ts] sound, like in Graecia, and c was always pronounced as [k] before all vowels; it's a later change done in Medieval Europe.
Latin had prepositions with ablative and accusative nouns, several postpositions were used with genitive nouns. It is very difficult to learn all Latin conjunctions for there is a great number of them really, and they all look like each other. Particles are also interesting with their archaic forms (emphatic and demonstrative particles which are lost in majority of modern Indo-European languages).
Latin used a syntax system seen even now in Romance tongues: the adjective
follows its noun, sequence of tenses is widely used, etc. In fact, Latin
is an excellent example of an Indo-European language in its best and most