The Grammar of the Lydian Language.
Note: special "Symbol" font is used here
 
1. The history of the Lydian language.
 
2. The Lydian Phonetics.
 
3. The Lydian Substantives.
 
4. The Lydian Verb.
 
5. The Lydian Auxiliary Forms.
 
 6. The Lydian Texts and Dictionary.
 
 § 5. The Lydian Auxiliary Forms.
 
Here we will give a list of particles, conjunctions, prepositions and postpositions which existed and were found in the Lydian language. It is essential that these auxiliary parts of speech were quite important in the language, their number is great and their role in the sentence was really vital. Practically every word was shaped by a particle or several of them, and those proclitics and enclitics could be not only prepositional, but also pronominal (see infixed pronouns), meaning the subject, the object, etc. But most of them were just service affixes helping to understand the place of the word in the whole sentence.
 
Particle
Meaning
Examples available
ak- an introductory prefix ak-it (So...)
-an the pronoun pointing at a direct object  
-bu, buk separatory conjunction "or", "either" mru-t buk vâna-t (to a stele or a tomb)
do- preposition "until", "till", "to"  
êt-, ên- preposition or prefix "in", "in-", "inside" ên-sarb- (to write in)
fa- prefix meaning "along", "on", or the imperfective aspect meaning for verbs fa-korfi- (to have done harm to smth) 
fra- through, by, with the help of   
-in- a particle uniting two parts of speech  
-k a postposition "and" (< *kwe) es-t mru-d es'-s'-k vâna-s' (this stele and this tomb)
-t a pronoun pointing at an object in dative case (do not mix with the case ending)  
nâ- an introductory particle  
-nak- a conjunction "also" (made of na- and -k)  
ni- not, non- ni-kantoru (I do not trust)
-ti, -ta, -li a possessive suffix es'a-tis (grandson's), atas' tivdalis (Atas, son of Tivdas)
-ta- with the verb, meaning "to come to some condition"  
-t, -it, -t, -it, -m, -in different kinds of emphatic particles fak-m-t (so to this - and not to that...) 
 
This is not the full list, but the basic one of the most widespread Lydian auxiliaries. Below in the given texts you will see their usage in the sentence. Some of them are clearly Indo-European, like -k (and) which is common among European tongues: Latin terra mari-que (on land and on sea), Greek hpeiron nhsous te (the continent and the islands), Lepontic Latumarui Sapsutaipe (for Latumaros and Sapsuta); this postposition was used in Proto-Indo-European to link nominal forms. Some of those particles are derived from Hittite: such as -m from -ma, a Hittite emphatic postfix, fra- from Hittite paran, the negative particle ni- from Indo-European n- via Luwian and Palaic ni-. Some are unique, or their cognates are not found yet.

In whole, the Lydian sentence construction had some strict rules which stress its Indo-European character. The pronoun es- was always used before the noun, having the functions similar to those of the English definite article. The attribute stood usually before the subject or the object, though some predicative adjectives, following thier nouns, were found. The possessive pronouns could be used only before the substantive. The verb is placed mostly at the end of the sentence. That's all for the Lydian syntax.
 
 
 § 6. The Lydian Texts and Dictionary.
 
The Lydian lexical composition is known very poorly - just for you to be happy with two short texts we can offer. The most part of Lydian epitaphias written in the 6-4 centuries BC were deciphered and translated easily, but sacral texts and particularly Lydian verses are less understandable. The vocabulary of the language contained only about 10% of Indo-European words, the rest were borrowings from native languages or simply of unknown origin. We will give texts with translation, and after them a short glossary with the etymological explanations for those words we found Indo-European by origin.
 
1. borl-t X artaks'assa-t qatmtu-tn
ora-t isl-t bakill-t es-t mru-d es'-s'-k vâna-s'
laqrisa-k qela-k kud-ki-t ist es-t vâna-t
bt tarvo-d ak-a-d maneli-d kumlili-d silukali-d ak-it nãqi-s
es-t mru-t buk es-t vãna-t buk esna-n
laqirisa-n buk-it kud ist es-t vãnat bt tarvo-d
ak-t-in nãqi-s qel-t-k fênstifi-d fak-m-t artimu-s'
ibs'imsi-s artimu-k kulumsi-s aara-t bira-t-k
ktida-t kofu-t-k qira-t qel-t-k bil-t vdbaqênt

In the year X of Artaxerxes the king was given
In the month this Bacchus's this stele and this tomb
And this wall and the area and where to this tomb
belonging and this is Manes's Kumlis's son's from Silukas's clan and-so if anyone
To this stele or this tomb or this
Wall or-here where to this tomb belonging
And-so if anyone to anything harm does and-so-to-him Artemis
Of Ephesus and of Kolos the yard his and the house
Land and water and property and everything that is his will destroy.

(The translation given is literary for better understanding of the text word by word. The sense is:
This tomb belongs to Manes, son of Kumlis, and who touches it, will have a little unpleasant conversation with Artemis goddess, who will easily destroy every property of him.)

2. ak-it qed fas'fênu ak-at qt fakantrov ak-m-t-is qis ditollad bitad fak-m-t-it-in qtdãn-k artimu-k katsarlokid ak-it edkok êtqratad kot-ad amu mitridastas' fêtamnidn ak-s' qis êmn êtamn un bavdnas'od buk in mêtrid buk bidên qik int akmt qed êmed êtams' un ak-ad artimus' bifers't.
 
So-here, what I have and-this to whom trust and-so-to-him-who harm does and-so-him and Kildans and Artemis will revenge, and will be-done as-this I, Mitridast, decide, and he, who my prescription to-be made, ignores or breaks it, or any harm does, and-so-to-him the prescription to-be made, will order and-this Artemis will-define.

(In normal words:
This is what I have and give to gods, and who takes it, will get acquainted with Artemis, who will decide what to do with him.)

These two texts above are inscriptions on tomb-steles, so the contens is like this. And here is the vocabulary for you to learn some words from Lydian:
 
  aara - a yard, an estate
  afari - a buying
  ama - to love (Proto-Indo-European *am-, Latin amare - to love)
  ãrte - to define
  as'aa - kindness (PIE *wesu- - good)
  as'trho, as'tarho - a defender
  avka - legal
  atas' - other, another (PIE *alyo-, Latin alius - other)
  basos'aknãki - to do harm
  bi - to give (Hittite peja - to give)
  bifers't - he will define
  bira - a house (Hittite par-, Luwian parna - house)
  borli, forli - a year
  brafr - a member of the commune (PIE *bhrátér-, Latin frater, Old English bróþor - brother)
  brvãs' - a year
  da - to give (PIE *dó-, Latin dare, Slavic *dati - to give)
  daul - to press
  dêt - property
  da, di - to devote
  divi - a god (PIE *deiwo-, Lithuanian dievas, Sanskrit deva- - a god)
  divnali - divine (PIE *deiwo- - a god)
  duve - to construct (Lwwian tuwa - to put)
  e - to be (PIE *es- - to be)
  ebad - here, there (PIE *ebho-, Hittite apa - this)
  es'a - a grandson (Hittite haa, Luwian hama - grandson)
  êna - mother
  ên-sarb - to write in
  êtam - a prescription
  êtos' - to surround
  êtqra - to complete
  fênani - to complete
  fênstifi - to spoil
  fêtamn to define
  fabatko -  broad
  fadol - he constructed
  fakarse - to destroy
  fakatvãmi - to go forward
  fakorfi - to spoil
  fas'fên - to grasp, to steal
  fata - defense
  fratinid - does, effects
  i - to do (Hittite aia, ai - to do)
  ifrli - a robber
  isqasãnvn - we possess
  istamin - a family
  kantoru - I trust
  kardal - he made, constructed
  kartt - to abolish
  katanil - he built
  katsarloki - to curse
  kave - a priest
  kattadmê - an inscription
  ktida - land
  ko - to discover
  kofu - water
  kot - he swears
  late - to speak (Greek lalos - talkative, Hittite lala - tongue)
  laqrisa - a wall
  mêtrid - he breaks
  mruvaa - a stele
  mtvênda - a part
  nãrs' - virtue, valor (PIE *ner-, *nert- - man's strength, Irish neart)
  ora - a month (Greek hóra - a season)
  qatmtus - a king
  qelis - everything, anything
  qela - an area
  qên - to kill (PIE *kwen- - to kill)
  qira - property
  sav - the good
  savênt - they flourish
  savtarid - he approves
  serli - a leader
  silavad - to take care
  s'rfas'ti - upper (Luwian sarri - up)
  tarb, trfno - to possess
  tas'e - a column
  tans'a - powerful
  tro, tor - to speak (Anatolian tr- - to speak, Luwian tatar - to curse)
  tên, dên - to sanctify
  tes'a - a sarcophagus
  u, uve - to prescribe
  vanã - a tomb
  ves'fas' - elder
  vis'i - good (PIE *wesu- - good)
  vid - to build (PIE *widhu- - wood, tree ?)
  vs'ta - a heir
  vdbaqên - to destroy, to eliminate
 
That's all we would like to tell here about the grammar of the Lydian language. We apologize for the lack of materials, but the literature about the subject is still scarce, and the sources from where we can extract more knowledge are not numerous. Anyway, this grammar has no analogues on the Web yet. We hope it will be welcomed by our guests. And we will work under the next grammars, and hope that they will be looked forward to.

Welcome,
Cyril Babaev
 

 1. The history of the Lydian language.
 
2. The Lydian Phonetics.
 
3. The Lydian Substantives.
 
4. The Lydian Verb.
 
5. The Lydian Auxiliary Forms.
 
6. The Lydian Texts and Dictionary.